BOF= Birds of a Feather (from the saying "Birds of a feather flock together") An informal discussion group to consider a specific issue or subject.

Presention Title Presenter Organization Type
Embedded Linux - An Increasing Nightmare? Thomas Gleixner Linutronix Keynote
The State of the Linux Kernel Jonathan Corbet LWN Keynote
X (Not On The Desktop) Matthew Allum OpenedHand Presentation
The use of JTAG in Linux Bring-up Mike Anderson The PTR Group Tutorial
Kernel Probes for ARM Quentin Barnes Motorola Presentation
How to Participate in the Kernel Development Process Jonathan Corbet LWN Presentation
TimeDoctor – Use the Strength of Eclipse to Visualize (Multi)Processor Execution Behavior Ruud Derwig Stuart Fullmer NXP Presentation
Audio, Video and Graphics BOF

Ruud Derwig

Benchmarking of Dynamic Power Management Solutions Frank Dols NXP Presentation
SPlit Application architeCturE

Bas Engel and Tom Sys

Philips Presentation
The Current Status of Timers and Realtime Support in the Kernel Thomas Gleixner Linutronix Presentation
Power Management Techniques, Policies, and Problems for Embedded Linux Mark Gross Intel Presentation
Power Management BOF Mark Gross Intel BOF
TOMOYO Linux - A Lightweight and Manageable Security System for PC and Embedded Linux Toshiharu Harada and Tetsuo Handa NTT Data Corporation Presentation
How DirectFB Adopted Market Specific Requirements Takanari Hayama (IGEL),Hisao Munakata (Renesas) Igel, Renesas Presentation
Current State of Bluetooth Support in Linux Marcel Holtman BlueZ Project Presentation
System size BOF Jared Hulbert Intel BOF
Realtime BOF - Realtime Preempt Patch Adaptation Experience (including Commercial Product) YungJoon Jung ETRI BOF
FancyPants – An Advanced 2D Graphics System for CE Linux Robi Karp Fluffy Spider Technologies Presentation
Bootup Technologies BOF Elias Kesh Phoenix BOF
OpenEmbedded - Easy QA, Repeatability and Retargetting Koen Kooi OpenEmbedded Project Presentation
Prelinker Usage for MIPS Cores Arvind Kumar, Kazu Hirata, Shinichi Tsurumoto MIPS, CodeSourcery, Mitsubishi Electric Presentation
How To Protect Your Intellectual Property While Using Open Source Shawn Kwon Samsung Presentation
Applying User-level Drivers on DTV System Gunho Lee LG Electronics Presentation
A Generic Parameter Layer for Linux Power Management Matt Locke, Eugeny Mints Nomad Global Consulting Presentation
How to Build A Custom Linux Distribution Matt Locke Nomad Global Consulting Tutorial
SPE-assisted User Level Device Driver on Cell Processor Hiroyuki Machida, Takao Shinohara, Akira Tsukamoto, Kuniyasu Suzaki Sony, Sony, SCEI, AIST Presentation
System-wide Memory Profiling Matt Mackall Selenic Consulting Presentation
TOMOYO Linux – Tutorial Kei Masumoto, Kentaro Takeda NTT Data Corporation Tutorial
Porting and Evaluating the Linux Realtime Preemption on Embedded Platform Katsuya Matsubara (IGEL), Hitomi Takahashi (IGEL), Hisao Munakata (Renesas) Igel, Renesas Presentation
Kernel Debugging with GDB Nicholas McGuire Lanzhou University Tutorial
Kernel Validation Tools Nicholas McGuire Lanzhou University Tutorial
GDB Tracepoints for GNU/Linux User and Kernel Space Nicholas McGuire Lanzhou University Tutorial
Telepathy: Real-time Communications Framework Robert McQueen   Presentation
Comparison of Secure OSes and embedded SELinux activity in Japan Yuichi Nakamura Hitachi Presentation
Suspend-to-RAM implementation on freescale 74xx without PMU Fujihito Numano Toshiba Presentation
Mobile Convergence Computing Handset Supporting Ubiquitous Concept Tae Joon Park, Changwoo Yoon, Youngjun Jung, Jaemyung Kim ETRI Presentation
OpenKODE - The Khronos Open Development Environment Ed Plowman ARM Ltd. Presentation
CELF in the Mobile Phone Space Scott Preece Motorola Presentation
Mobile Phone BOF Scott Preece Motorola BOF
Experiment with Linux and ARM Thumb-2 ISA Philippe Robin ARM Presentation
File System Survey Gene Sally TimeSys Presentation
Small Root File Systems Gene Sally TimeSys Presentation
Gstreamer Tutorial Jan Schmidt Fluendo Tutorial
HTTP-FUSE PS3 Linux which is internet boot framework with kboot Kuniyasu Suzaki, Toshiki Yagi National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Presentation
uClinux -- State of the Nation Greg Ungerer SnapGear Presentation
The OpenMAX Integration Layer standard Giulio Urlini ST Presentation
The CEA 2014 Standard. A New XHTML-Based Browser and Setup Framework for Digital Home Devices Mark R. Walker Intel Presentation
An Annoucement from the GNOME Foundation Jeff Waugh GNOME Foundation Launch Speech
Deferred Dynamic Loading --- A Memory Reduction Technique Tetsuji Yamamoto, Masashige Mizuyama Matsushita Electric Industrial, Panasonic Mobile Communications Presentation
Management of Software Suspend Image Haitao Zhang and Yuji Wei Netspectrum Presentation


Session Descriptions


Presenter: Thomas Gleixner
Company: Linutronix
Title: Embedded Linux - An Increasing Nightmare?

Linux has been growing rapidly in popularity for embedded devices of all sorts. This is yet another proof of the success of the Open Source Development model. But looking deeper into the reality of how it is used in the embedded market, from a Linux Kernel maintainer point of view, reveals a scary picture of fragmentation, community disconnectedness and wasted resources.

Thomas Gleixner has worked on industrial embedded devices for over 20 years. During the last 8 years he has focused on Linux for industrial applications. He has contributed to Linux in several ways. He is the main author of the hrtimer subsystem and the high resolution timer implementation on top of hrtimers and a major contributor to Ingo Molnars realtime preemption patch.



Presenter: Jonathan Corbet
Company: LWN
Title: The State of the Linux Kernel

This is a talk for anybody who is curious about the current condition of the Linux kernel: how it is developed, where it stands, and where things are likely to go. This talk should be of interest to anybody who is looking to learn more about how the Linux kernel is developed and what the future plans are.

Jonathan Corbet is a co-founder of and the author of its Kernel Page. He is the lead author of Linux Device Drivers, Third Edition, published by O’Reilly. He is the author and maintainer of the cafe_ccic and OV7670 camera drivers used by the OLPC XO system. Jonathan lives in Boulder, Colorado.


Presenter: Mike Anderson
Company: The PTR Group
Title: The Use of JTAG in Linux Bring-up

Many embedded developers are vaguely familiar with the concept of the JTAG hardware debugger.  However, few have had the opportunity to gain an appreciation of the use of this tool in the board bring-up process.  This presentation will outline the various steps that must be taken to go from a new board to a working Linux system.

Starting with the initial bring up of the boot firmware, the presentation will demonstrate the process of bringing up firmware, the hand off from firmware to Linux and the use of JTAG hardware in debugging the Linux kernel itself including debugging of Linux device drivers.
This is an intermediate to advanced-level presentation targeted at showing the process of boot firmware/Linux bring-up on a new board using hardware debugging tools.

Mike Anderson is a founder and Chief Scientist of The PTR Group. Mike’s background encompasses over 30 years of computer experience ranging from supercomputers to embedded 8-bit microprocessors. With over 20 years focusing in the RTOS marketplace using VxWorks, pSOS, and RTX-32, among others, Mike brings a unique perspective to the embedded Linux arena. His Linux experience encompasses many years using and deploying commercial and open source Linux distros from companies like MontaVista, Wind River Systems and the Denx ELDK as well as building distros from scratch for ARM/OMAP/XScale, PPC and MIPS.


Presenter: Quentin Barnes
Company: Motorola
Title: Kernel Probes for ARM

Kernel probes (“Kprobes”) is a Linux 2.6 kernel feature that allows dynamic breakpoints to be placed most anywhere in the kernel.  These breakpoints can be used on the fly to collect debugging and performance information with minimal system impact.

To implement Kprobes, the kernel requires substantial code in the machine-dependent layer.  Before now, no code existed to support Kprobes on the ARM platform.  In developing Kprobes for ARM, due to the the ARM’s unusual architecture, it presented difficulties previously unencountered and unresolved for any other platform.

Also, all current Kprobes implementations present problems for real-time constraints on kernels configured for preemption.  This unique approach fully implements Kprobes for ARM solving the existing implementation issues, is MP-safe, lightweight, and fits in just a small amount of code space.

Quentin Barnes is a principal staff engineer for Motorola in Urbana-Champaign, Illinois. For 22 years, he has focused on operating system software development on a wide variety of platforms and operating systems. For the last 10 years, he has developed embedded, real-time operating system software for mobile devices for the M•CORE and ARM processors.


Presenter: Jonathan Corbet
Company: LWN
Title: How to Participate in the Kernel Development Process

The Linux kernel development process is amazingly open, to the point that almost 2,000 developers were able to add changes over the last year. Over the years, I have watched as many developers have attempted to engage with the system, some with far more success than others.

This talk is an attempt toidentify the factors which lead to success or failure and present them in a way that will help others seeking to get code into the kernel. It should be of interest to kernel developers, their managers, and anybody else who would like to influence the process.

Jonathan Corbet is a co-founder of and the author of its Kernel Page. He is the lead author of Linux Device Drivers, Third Edition, published by O’Reilly. He is the author and maintainer of the cafe_ccic and OV7670 camera drivers used by the OLPC XO system. Jonathan lives in Boulder, Colorado.


Presenters: Ruud Derwig, Stuart Fullmer
Company: NXP Semiconductors
Title: TimeDoctor – Use the strength of Eclipse to visualize (multi)processor execution behavior

TimeDoctor is a tool to visualize (multi)processor execution traces of tasks, queues, cache behavior, etc. The tool provides insight in the execution behavior of an embedded system. This helps the system designer to integrate individual hardware and software components in a (multi)processor setting while at the same time handling real-time requirements. TimeDoctor was originally targeted at embedded media processors and therefore includes specific features for analyzing audio/video streaming applications but has wider applicability:visualizing dynamic behavior of Linux based systems.

Last year, NXP Semiconductors has re-implemented the existing proprietary TimeDoctor tool as a number of Eclipse plug-ins, and released it as open source This presentation will introduce the TimeDoctor tool and explain the Eclipse-based design.

Furthermore, the topic of collecting trace data from a Linux system and transforming it to TimeDoctor’s TDI-format will be covered. After attending the presentation, you should be able to easily get TimeDoctor and the trace logging up and running on your system, and experience a deep insight in what’s really going on in your embedded product.

Ruud Derwig has around 15 years of experience with software architectures for consumer electronics products. Key areas of expertise include (real-time) operating systems, audio/video media processing, and component based architectures. Ruud has been working at Philips Corporate Research and is currently technology manager for operating systems and software infrastructure at NXP Semiconductors. Ruud represents NXP in the architecture group of the CE Linux Forum and chairs the Audio Video Graphics working group.


Presenter: Frank Dols
Company: NXP Semiconductors
Title: Benchmarking of Dynamic Power Management Solutions

Dynamic Power Management (DPM) principles have become more and more available for mobile/portable devices. An important issue is a generic DPM framework as can be used within Linux. Furthermore, DPM has to be resolved on a complete system level (hardware and software).
Now, there is more and more hardware capable of dynamic scale voltage and frequency in independent islands. From the software point of view, various solutions are available like CPUfreq and PowerOP. From the user point of view, it is important to know if the various solutions add power savings and that they are complementary.

To get a good understanding and to investigate the impact on NXP’s intellectual property, it is required to benchmark these solutions and to demonstrate the added value. One of the first things that we had to do was identifying key performance indicators. Once this was done, we could create a generic framework that could be used to benchmark DPM principles. After applying the benchmarks to various DPM solutions we could quickly identify possible bottlenecks.

Frank started 16 years ago at Philips, developing motion control software for an Advanced Component Mounter. Nine years ago, he joined NXP Semiconductors  and mainly worked on software architectures for mobile and portable devices. In this context the main focus was on feature enabling added value by enabling features on the OS with extensions such as power management, multi core and security. In the last four years, he is working on the development of benchmark methods how to quantify these extensions in their performance. Today, the main focus, from the operating systems point of view, is on Linux, Symbian and eCos.


Presenters: Bas Engel, Tom Sys
Company: Philips
Title: SPlit Application architeCturE

In the past years Philips developed a Flat TV product line that addresses the global digital TV market. This product line was designed around a highly integrated software architecture where the operating system played a marginal role. Even though Philips 2K7 digital TV products all have the Linux operating system, they do not benefit from the wide set of services and standard building blocks that the community potentially has to offer, as Philips merely uses Linux as a simple kernel.
However, Philips 2K8 software architecture incorporates a significant refactoring to change this. The architectural refactoring is centered around multiple concurrent applications that present an orthogonal view on the system. For the central control system Philips co-developed the Shared Application Window Manager (sawman) together with Denis Oliver Kropp, published as part of the

DirectFB archive. Sawman enables a true multi-window system with multiple graphic and video windows, coherently presented and managed. Next to this, SPACE presents a coherent view on managing the applications in terms of audio, video, graphics, and i/o handling.
In addition, as we move away from a highly integrated architecture to a split application architecture we also require an audio video API, including a resource manager, to allow any application to use the shared resources of the platform. It also enables us to have a standard way of integrating third party software.

Finally, we foresee a significant gain in terms of execution behavior and predictability of the final product integration. The presentation will discuss the architectural refactoring of the Philips digital TV product. It will present DirectFB’s sawman, managing multiple applications coherently, the audio video graphics API, and finally the integration of third party software. The presentation will conclude by discussing some of the challenges ahead.

Bas Engel has over 7 years of experience in the digital TV domain. He started at Philips Research where he became an expert in the area of component based software architectures, audio and video media processing, and digital system integration. Bas worked for Philips Semiconductors on the team that successfully introduced Linux in their line of digital TV products.

Since 2006 he is a senior software architect for Philips Consumer Electronics where he is responsible for the software architecture of Philips' digital TV products. Bas represents Philips in the CELF Architecture Group.


Presenter: Thomas Gleixner
Company: Linutronix
Title: The Current Status of Timers and Realtime support in the Kernel

The realtime preemption project led by Ingo Molnar turns the Linux Kernel into a Real Time Operating System. The realtime preemption patch is still maintained out of the mainline kernel tree, but is slowly making its way in, piece by piece. This talk gives an overview of the components which already have been included into the mainline kernel, and an outlook on the further integration roadmap.

Thomas Gleixner has worked on industrial embedded devices for over 20 years. During the last 8 years he has focused on Linux for industrial applications. He has contributed to Linux in several ways. He is the main author of the hrtimer subsystem and the high resolution timer implementation on top of hrtimers and a major contributor to Ingo Molnars realtime preemption patch.


Presenter: Mark Gross
Company: Intel
Title: Power Management Techniques, Policies, and Problems for Embedded Linux

Power management for Linux is a fragmented collection of approaches. The fragmentation is driven by the dominance of the PC laptop, desktop and server architectures in the developer community for the core kernel.  This talk provides an overview of the PM technologies currently available and what is being worked on today, and will provide motivation and overview of each along with issues and challenges, both technical and political, each may have.

Mark Gross is an Engineer in the Open Source Technology center at Intel Corporation. He primarily works on telecommunication computing platform Linux OS support for Intel, along with some additional activities. Mark is also the chair of the power management working group for the Consumer Electronics Linux Forum. Mark is a robotics hobbyist and participates in and the occasional Dorkbot get together.


Presenters: Toshiharu Harada, Tetsuo Handa
Company: NTT Data Corporation
Title: TOMOYO Linux - A lightweight and manageable security system for PC and embedded Linux

TOMOYO Linux is a mechanism of fine-grained access control. One of the characteristics of TOMOYO Linux is that it is lightweight, which is well-suited for embedded-devices. Another is the automatic-learning access policy functionality, which enables developers to easily manage fine-grained access control.This session shows embedded-device developers the usage of TOMOYO Linux, and how TOMOYO Linux helps achieve secure embedded-devices.

This session consists of three parts:
1. Basic usage of the automatic-learning access policy functionality.
2. More practical examples - going through securing www server, participants understand how to secure www server.
3. Advanced functionality - TOMOYO Linux can control various OS resources.
An example is the network access control, which can provide higher security to embedded-devices. Showing how to use this functionality, participants understand TOMOYO Linux’ advanced functionality.

Toshiharu Harada is a senior technical manager at NTT DATA CORPORATION, one of the largest system integration companies in Japan. He is working at the Open Source Software Development Center, and has been conducting several projects as technical supervisor. The results of his projects include TOMOYO Linux and Linux Kernel Based IDS. He has been involved in the area of operating systems security since 2003.


Presenters: Takanari Hayama,Hisao Munakata
Companies: IGEL, Renesas
Title: How DirectFB Adopted Market Specific Requirements

DirectFB has been adopted in many embedded systems such as STB and Digital TV. DirectFB has been carefully design to meet most of the requirements from wide variety of applications. However, it is also true that pre-1.0.0 has shortage of features to meet some specific market, i.e. Japanese Digital TV requirements.

Denis, the maintainer of DirectFB, and Renesas have been working together to enhance DirectFB to meet Japanese DTV requirements. In many cases, Japanese requirements have more constraints than that of other regions, and has very specific requirements that are not used else where. DirectFB 1.0.0 has implemented a lot of new generic features that are also required to meet Japanese DTV requirements. In this presentation, we demonstrate how we have managed it and what features were added.

Takanari Hayama, Ph.D. is a founder and president of IGEL Co.,Ltd, an IT consulting company. He has been consulting Linux and open source solutions for more than 10 years. He has been supporting many kernel related development. He has developped Linux drivers for MPEG-2 Decoders, Digital TV related products, Professional Audio Devices, etc. He also was involved in IPv6 development that runs not on only Linux, but also on NetBSD and ITRON. His current interrests are in the area of multimedia computing, operating system and mobile computing.


Presenter: Marcel Holtman
Company: BlueZ Project
Title: Current State of Bluetooth Support in Linux

The Linux kernel supports Bluetooth devices since the 2.4.6 release, but the main desktop and embedded integration has been achieved in the last two years. It now seamlessly integrates with D-Bus and provides a really simple and easy to use interface for applications. The current API covers all needed Bluetooth core functionalities and allows to run the same set of daemons on all Linux distributions, the Maemo or OpenMoko frameworks and other embedded systems. The user interface is the only difference between all these systems.

This talk gives an overview of the architecture of the Bluetooth subsystem and how its components interact. It also shows how current embedded frameworks like Maemo and OpenMoko adapted to this API. The choice of D-Bus as communication method also opened the Bluetooth subsystem to scripting languages like Python and Perl. This makes rapid prototyping of Bluetooth integration really simple.

In addition to the current state, the talk will also give an outlook of the Bluetooth 2.1 and 3.0 support and its integration.

Marcel Holtmann is the maintainer and the core developer of the official Linux Bluetooth stack which is called BlueZ. He started working with the Bluetooth technology back in 2001. His work includes new hardware drivers, upper layer protocol implementations and the integration of Bluetooth into other subsystems of the Linux kernel. In January 2004 he overtook the maintainer role from the original developer Max Krasnyansky. Together with Jean Tourrilhes he maintains the OpenOBEX project. He is also responsible for the IrDA and Bluetooth integrations of the Gnokii project.


Presenter: Robi Karp
Company: Fluffy Spider Technologies
Title: FancyPants – An Advanced 2D Graphics System for CE Linux

My company, Fluffy Spider Technologies, has commercialised, and built upon, the open source E17 work (, specifically for embedded Linux.  The product is called FancyPants.

My presentation will talk about an advanced 2D graphics system, with multi-media / Apple iPhone type capabilities for CE Linux.  It will discuss:

• The abstraction of the display subsystem to cater more than one type of output, such as DirectFB, Qtopia, X11, etc.
• A Canvas Server designed specifically for virtualised embedded operating systems.
• How developers can make use of a multi-app Canvas Server from different operating systems simultaneously.
• A development model that makes it simple to work with all types of media for embedded in a consistent manner.
• Ways to extend applications and themes (or skins) using a comprehensive scripting language, post deployment.

I will also discuss where and how FancyPants has been deployed and which parts of the source are available.

Robi Karp is the Founder and CEO of Fluffy Spider Technologies.  FST, based in Sydney, Australia, has developed and commercialised the first version of their embedded graphics platform, FancyPants. Based on some of the E17 libraries, FancyPants takes a new approach to embedded graphics, emphasising multi-media with highly successful results.
Robi’s interests lie in working with advanced graphics on embedded systems. He has a keen interest in mobile phone and STB technlogies. While Robi may be the CEO of a company today, his background is in programming, which he began about 20 years ago and still misses.


Presenter: Koen Kooi
Company: OpenEmbedded project
Title: OpenEmbedded - Easy QA, Repeatability and Retargetting

The first part of this presentation will be a brief introduction to OE and its concepts.The second part will highlight several options to leverage existing solutions for QA, repeatability and retargetting. The last part will show real-world examples of those options.

Koen Kooi has been building and maintaining various embedded distributions ever since he purchased an iPaq in 2004 to run Linux on. He is currently one of the core developers of the OpenEmbedded project, where he focuses on better integration, testing and QA. When he’s not working on embedded he is busy getting a masters degree in electrical engineering at the University of Twente.


Presenters: Arvind Kumar, Kazu Hirata, Shinichi Tsurumoto
Companies: MIPS, CodeSourcery, Mitsubishi Electric
Title: Prelinker Usage for MIPS Cores

This session describes the prelinker and usage for MIPS architecture and results obtained in the real world.  The prelinker facilities will be described, including any MIPS-specific features.  Speedups achieved in various test setups will be shown.

Arvind has over twenty years of semiconductor industry experience including design, applications, product marketing, team building, and market development. He has worked with both digital and analog technologies in the areas of digital video, RISC and CISC CPUs, image compression and System-on-Chip (SoC) solutions. He has extensive international business experience in Europe, Asia, Japan and India. Arvind has worked with companies such as C-Cube Microsystems, where he promoted Video CD technology, and his efforts led to product launches by several player manufacturers such as Sony, Philips and Samsung in the Indian market and the release of over 2,000 Indian titles worldwide; Philips Semiconductors and LSI Logic where he evangelized the MIPS architecture, taught a MIPS-based design course to customers and at UC Berkeley extension, and ran a Partners’ Program called the FasTrack33K with participation from over 50 companies with synergistic products. In his current position, Arvind is responsible for Product Marketing and Alliance Management at MIPS Technologies.

Arvind has a Master’s in Electrical Engineering from the University of Southern California, Los Angeles and a Master’s in Physics from the Indian Institute of Technology.


Presenter: Shawn Kwon
Company: Samsung
Title: How to Protect Your Intellectual Property While Using Open Source

Intellectual property in software can be divided into copyright and patent. There are many open source licenses and most of them have different coverage on intellectual property. The session will cover most widely used open source licenses like GPL, LGPL, how to comply with them when using open source software and avoiding the pitfalls of applying them into your product.

Shawn Kwon is a senior engineer at Samsung Electronics. He founded Korea’s biggest & oldest Open Source community called KLDP in 1996 and still maintains it. He is interested in Linux, open source and software freedom.


Presenter: SangBae Lee
Company: Samsung
Title: Analysis of Interrupt Entry Latency in Linux 2.4 vs 2.6

Embedded Linux processes several interrupt requests generated by devices at the same time. As more devices generate more interrupt requests, statistical information about overall interrupt processing time becomes important in the system. System engineers and developers must consider interrupt responsiveness in order to achieve optimized system performance.
Interrupt latency refers to the measurement of interrupt responsiveness. In order to measure interrupt latency, we can consider ISR (Interrupt Service Routine) entry latency and ISR processing time.

ISR entry latency is the period of time from the occurrence of an interrupt to the beginning of ISR execution. There has been no efficient and simple method to properly measure this ISR entry latency because it  s extremely difficult to expect when a hardware interrupt request is generated.
In this presentation, to analyze interrupt entry latency behavior of embedded linux (including the comparison of Linux 2.4 and 2.6), a simple yet efficient method will be introduced as a way to evaluate system interrupt responsiveness. Hardware timer interrupt is used to collect raw data and statistical information of its ISR entry latency as an example. From this, we can infer overall interrupt responsiveness of the system. Also, interrupt entry latency in Linux v2.4 and v2.6 is compared by analyzing Samsung  s DTV.

SangBae Lee is currently a senior engineer in the Software Laboratories, Samsung Electronics. His major responsibility is embedded Linux software development for consumer electronics products and his research interests include operating systems, especially OS virtualization technology in embedded system, operating system performance benchmark, etc.


Presenter: Gunho Lee
Company: LG Electronics
Title: Applying User-level Drivers on DTV System

In applying user-level device drivers to embedded Linux systems, the most important issues are debugging and performance. For debugging efficiency, developing drivers in user-level is a good choice since it makes it easier to debug critical driver bugs by using powerful application debugging tools. However, the user-level device drivers can degrade the real-time performance and response time of Linux systems.

Fortunately, the recent improvements on real-time performance in Linux kernel 2.6 provide good environments for user-level drivers. In this presentation, the software architecture of DTV user-level drivers will be presented, including the kernel module (udm) for supporting user drivers and UDD-SDK for user-level driver developers. Performance evaluation and comparison between kernel-level and user-level device drivers will also be presented. This presentation will be a good reference for developers who are considering user-level device drivers for their embedded Linux systems.

Gunho Lee is senior research engineer in the Software & Solution Center, LG Electronics. He supports device driver development and system wrapping api functions of Digital TV application. He is interested in implementation of user-level device driver on CE products and system performance improvement.


Presenters: Matt Locke, Eugeny Mints
Company: Nomad Global Consulting
Title: A Generic Parameter Layer for Linux Power Management

Every year mobile devices, including laptops and cell phones, add more advanced features that increase power consumption. However, battery life requirements are not decreasing but rather increasing.

The silicon vendors are meeting this conflicting requirement, more computational power while consuming less power, by exposing finer grain control of hardware resources that affect power consumption.

These controls are scaling and power control over resources such as clocks, voltages, memory banks and others. This presentation proposes a power management design for runtime control of these resources enabling very aggressive power management policies in Linux.
This new design is a result of working with the existing power management solutions (PowerOP, DPM, clock framework and cpufreq), features of the latest embedded SoCs, and the requirement/feature discussion on the linux-pm mailing list over the last 6-8 months. The hardware resources are abstracted as software power parameters which provides an architecture independent API for controlling individual power parameters, groups of power parameters and tracking relationships between power parameters. As the end user of the hardware resources, device drivers will also be addressed. Design is not limited to embedded SoC’s but also applicable to architectures used in laptops and servers.

Matt Locke works at Nomad Global Consulting.


Presenter: Matt Locke
Company: Nomad Global Consulting
Title: How to Build A Custom Linux Distribution



Presenters: Hiroyuki Machida, Takao Shinohara, Akira Tsukamoto, Kuniyasu Suzaki
Companies: Sony, Sony, SCEI, AIST
Title: SPE-assisted User Level Device Driver on Cell Processor

Cell broadband engine is a heterogeneous multi-core processor which consists of a Power PC element, (PPE) and Synergic Processor Elements (SPEs). SPEs can be used to achieve better performance. This paper proposes utilizing SPEs from user space to accelerate kernel services. Our solution allows kernel services to access to SPEs easily. We’ll show evaluation of the concept, using modified compressed loop device driver, CLOOP, to utilize SPE.  We’ll also discuss possible other kernel services to be accelerated by SPEs.

Hiroyuki Machida is a senior manager of Sony Corp. He has been leading a Cell/PS3 Linux team in Sony Corporation and working with Linux team in Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. He also has worked to enhance Linux for embedded system and is one of the very early members of the Consumer Electronics Linux Forum. Prior to working on Linux, he had worked for MIPS based UNIX workstation, especially for X window system and toolchain.


Presenter: Matt Mackall
Company: Selenic Consulting
Title: System-wide Memory Profiling

It is currently difficult to get a precise measurement of the used and available RAM on a system, due to page sharing, cache dynamics and other factors. This is an important issue for resource constrained products, where reliability and graceful degradation (or graceful denial) of service are important to ensure good user experience.

We will look at expanding the standard kernel interfaces to allow page-level introspection of system memory usage on a live system. The new interfaces should help developers get a better sense of how RAM is being used by programs and libraries on the system.

Matt Mackall is an independent kernel developer focusing on embedded systems. He is a charter member of the Linux Foundation’s Technical Advisor Board and a three time member of the Kernel Summit Program Committee. He is also the lead developer of the Mercurial distributed version control system.


Presenter: Kei Masumoto, Kentaro Takeda
Company: NTT Data Corporation
Title: TOMOYO Linux – Tutorial

TOMOYO Linux  is a mechanism of fine-grained access control.  One of  the characteristics of TOMOYO Linux is that it is lightweight, which is well suited for embedded devices. Another is the automatically-learning access policy functionality, which enables developers to easily manage fine-grained access control.

This session shows embedded devices developers how to use TOMOYO Linux, and how TOMOYO Linux can help secure embedded devices.

This session consists of three parts:
1. Basic usage of the automatically-learning access policy functionality.
2. A more practical example - going through securing www server, participants understand how to secure www server.
3. Advanced functionality - TOMOYO Linux can control various OS resources.
One example of this is the network access control, which can provide higher security to embedded devices. By showing how to use this functionality, participants will understand TOMOYO Linux advanced functionality.

Kei Masumoto is working at NTT DATA CORPORATION, Japan. He is a development engineer of TOMOYO Linux”


Presenters: Katsuya Matsubara, Hitomi Takahashi, Hisao Munakata
Company: IGEL, Renesas
Title: Porting and Evaluating the Linux Realtime Preemption on Embedded Platform

Recently the Linux Realtime Preemption (PREEMPT_RT) patch, which is maintained by Ingo Molnar, is attracting attention, especially from CE market.  Unfortunately, it is not easy to apply it because it demands refactoring code of critical regions and atomic (uninterruptable) operations in all device drivers and processor specific programs.

The PREEMPT_RT patch currently supports not only Intel x86 and PowerPC but also ARM and MIPS based-platforms.  However Renesas SuperH, which is one of the major processors for embedded systems, is not supported.

We have ported the PREEMPT_RT patch for a SuperH based-platform (RTS7751R2D as a CELF reference board).  In this presentation we summarize essences to attain efficient preemption through demonstrating a procedure of PREEMPT_RT porting.  Additionally we show results of PREEMPT_RT evaluation from the perspective of the embedded system.

Katsuya Matsubara, Ph.D. is a senior manager of IGEL Co.,Ltd. He has been studying Operating Systems for many years. After leading research projects at the university, he has been doing device driver development for embedded devices. He has implemented Linux drivers for mobile phone, digital TV, etc His current interests include OS support for embedded and small devices and secure OS.


Presenters: Nicholas McGuire
Company: Lanzhou University
Title: GDB Tracepoints for GNU/Linux User and Kernel Space

The problem of debugging applications in the value domain without halting execution due to temporal constraints imposed by components not under control of the debugged process, as with IPC or networking, is currently not addressed in GDB. This problem does not have a simply single solution, but rather the solution depends heavily on the particular problem and the sensitivity of the coupled processes. Developing and thus debugging code that needs to ensure operation within well defined temporal bounds mandates tools to record the value domain without halting execution. This class of applications thus falls into the definition of real-time applications where the program’s correctness depends on its time behavior and not only on the correctness of the value domain. One possibility of relatively unobtrusively recording arbitrary values of an application during its execution are GDB tracepoints. Tracepoints have been specified in GDB since the 4x version, but no public implementation has been made available to date.

In this paper we describe our implementation and experience as well as limitations of the specification and our current implementation, current work on extending tracepoints into KGDB and our proposals to modify the tracepoint specification to overcome some limitations..

Nicholas McGuire’s interest in Linux began in early 1995 while working at the Vienna University of Technology, where he programmed DSP’s (TMS 320C4X) for magnetic bearing systems. He continued working with Linux at the Institute for Computational Material Science, Vienna University from 1997-2001, primarily on high performance clusters (Alpha-LX/DP-264/UP-2000/K7 clusters). This work introduced him into the world of MPI, PVM and the MOSIX project, which extended his interest into distributed real-time systems.
He started work on MiniRTL in 1998. A fascination for DSP’s and magnetic bearings brought him to RTLinux which he has been using since late 1998 (rtlinux-0.6). He is currently working on embedded RTLinux based projects for machine tools, medical devices and transport systems as well as in the field of high-end telecommunications devices.
As of version 3.2 of RTLinux he has officially taken on the role of maintainer for the GPL track ( Since 2004 he has been building up the Distributed and Embedded Systems Lab ( at Lanzhou University in China, where his main focus is on real-time Linux in distributed systems.


Presenter: Nicholas McGuire
Company: Lanzhou University
Title: Kernel Debugging with GDB

Kernel developers still fight about the need and application developers  generally are happy if a proper tool-chain exists. GDB is a well established  debugger, but debugging the kernel, and especially kernel modules with GDB  still causes some confusion at times. In this session, we will introduce  the options of debugging the Linux kernel with GDB and briefly demonstrate  them by covering:

 GDB and User-Mode-Linux
 KGDB and its tracepoint extension(s)
 Using GDB with a BDI 2000


Presenter: Nicholas McGuire
Company: Lanzhou University
Title: Kernel Validation Tools

Reliable operations of the Kernel is a critical requirement in many fields.  Validating a complex system like a Linux kernel can only be done with the  help of analysis tools. In this session we introduce and demonstrate some  of the prominent tools in this field, including:

KFT - Kernel Function Trace
Kernel GCOV - Code coverage for the Linux Kernel  LTT - Linux Trace ToolKit


Presenter: Yuichi Nakamura
Company: Hitachi
Title: Comparison of Secure OSes and Embedded SELinux Activity in Japan

SSecure OS has enhanced access control mechanisms that can restrict behavior of root. Secure OS is also expected to enhance the security of embedded devices. Many Linux based Secure OSes are developed, such as SELinux, LIDS, AppArmor and TOMOYO Linux.

The differences of Secure OSes are discussed as the first topic. Two typical Secure OSes, SELinux and AppArmor are introduced. Then Secure OSes are compared. The next topic focuses on activities around embedded SELinux in Japan. Two projects will be introduced. The first one is sebusybox project. sebusybox is a project to port SELinux commands to BusyBox. The second one is SELinux Policy Editor. SELinux Policy Editor is a tool to configure SELinux easily.

Yuichi Nakamura has been researching SELinux in Hitachi Software for about six years and leads the Japanese SELinux community and promotion of SELinux in Japan. He is also a developer of [WWW]SELinux Policy Editor, which makes SELinux easy. Recently he is interested in porting SELinux and other secure OSes to embedded devices, and is a developer of sebusybox project.


Presenter: Fujihito Numano
Company: Toshiba
Title: Suspend-to-RAM Implementation on freescale 74xx without PMU

Currently, power management is getting more and more crucial to reduce power consumption not only for longer utilization time but also for environmental conservation. One of the power management methods is to make a system be in a low-power sleep mode automatically after a period of inactivity.

We have implemented suspend-to-RAM as a low-power sleep mode for our sample board with a freescale 74xx CPU. Our board has no external hardware support, such as PMU (Power Management Unit), to control power lines and to watch over power status of the board. Also, it has no non-volatile memory to keep the running status of the processor on a low-power interval.
As for the processor, it is required to keep low-power mode for as long as possible. It is therefore required to prevent it from waking up at any TICK event. We’d like to introduce how we make use of the suspend-to-RAM function with an offline demonstration.

Fujihito Numano is a specialist at Toshiba Corporation. He is working at Corporate Software Engineering Center, research and investigates embedded operating systems. His current interest is the power management technology of embedded Linux to help optimize power consumption.


Presenters: Tae Joon Park, Changwoo Yoon, Youngjun Jung, Jaemyung Kim
Company: ETRI
Title: Mobile Convergence Computing Handset Supporting Ubiquitous Concept

One of the important concepts of ubiquitous computing is convergence of services where technologies are virtually invisible in our lives. Wireless and embedded are key technologies to support the ubiquitous concept: existing everywhere at the same time. We developed a mobile device named MCC (Mobile Convergence Computing) handset to support the ubiquitous concept. In this demo, we will present the feature of MCC handset and services.

The MCC handset includes various kinds of H/W such as CDMA, WLAN, T-DMB, GPS and Camera. It runs on Linux based real-time OS, Qplus, with telephone function library, WIPI client functions, and GTK based X library. We selected three test applications supporting ubiquitous concepts: Mobile office, Mobile entertainment, and Mobile co-browsing. Mobile office supports remote operation of home PC anywhere through MCC handset. Mobile entertainment provides local audio/video play and remote media search and play. Mobile co-browsing shows synchronized display of web pages among MCC handsets.

Tae Joon Park joined SERI (Systems Engineering Research Institute) in 1994 after receing M.S. degree in computer science. While working at SERI, his research focus was on system software of large-scale computers. He developed a translator which translates standard ANSI-C codes into parallelized C codes, optimized to vector processor computers such as Cray supercomputers. He also worked to develop system management tools for the third generation of Ticom computer.
After joining ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunication Research Institute) in 1999, his research focus has changed to embedded system software. He has been related with Qplus operating system for about 8 years now and recently has been working on telematics handsets recently.


Presenter: Ed Plowman
Company: ARM Ltd.
Title: OpenKODE - The Khronos Open Development Environment

OpenKODE offers an open and portable target environment for mediarich applications. It brings together all the existing Khronos API’s and adds abstraction of execution environment capabilities, along with conformance testing to ensure interoperability among the core API’s.  OpenKODE finally provides an open standard answer to DirectX.

Ed Plowman has more than 10 years of experience in media and graphics processing. Ed is currently employed as 3D Graphics Products Manager with ARM Ltd, guiding ARM’s 3D graphics processing strategy. He also represents ARM in the OpenGL ES working group and occupies the ARM seat on the Khronos board of promoters. Ed started his career as one of the founding members of Argonaut technologies (an off shoot of Argonaut Software which later became ARC cores), working on CPU based 3D graphics technology which later provided the foundation for the ARC processor core.


Presenter: Scott Preece
Company: Motorola
Title: CELF in the Mobile Phone Space

This session will be an overview of the use of Linux in mobile phones, focusing on the industry forums involved in shaping the space and the work of the CELF Mobile Phone Profile Working Group in support of Linux-based mobile phones. The CELF MPPWG is one of a growing number of organizations addressing this domain. This talk will consider the scope and focus of the different organizations, their progress in delivering results, and the prospects for cooperation to avoid fragmentation. The CELF MPPWG was formed in 2004 and has been working on characterizing the mobile phone domain and on developing API specifications for that domain. The working group has active liaison relationships with most of the other industry forums. This talk will include a high-level overview of the Reference Architecture and API that the working group has developed.

Scott Preece is a senior software architect at Motorola Mobile Devices, working in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, on developing a mobile-phone platform based on Linux. He has been working in software development close to 40 years, with extended periods in information retrieval research, user interaction design, UNIX system development, LISP compilers, and mobile-phone software systems. He is a Motorola Science Advisory Board Associate and was chairman of Motorola’s Software Engineering Technology Steering Committee.

Scott has a Computer Science PhD from the University of Illinois as well as degrees from Dartmouth College and the University of Chicago, dating to before Computer Science was a major.
Scott chairs the CELF Mobile Phone Profile Working Group and is a member of the CELF Architecture Group.


Presenter: Philippe Robin
Company: ARM
Title: Experiment with Linux and ARM Thumb-2 ISA.

ARM recently worked on enabling the execution of the Linux kernel and applications using the new Thumb-2 instruction set. Thumb-2 is built on the foundation of ARM’s Thumb code compression technology, retaining the compact code qualities and complete code compatibility with existing ARM solutions, while providing increased performance and energy efficiency from compact code. Thumb-2 is a new blended instruction set combining both 16-bit and 32-bit instructions designed to deliver the best balance of code density and performance.

This talk will present some results from integrating Thumb-2 support in Linux kernel (2.6) and its impact on system size and performance. This work combined with the integration of MMUless support into mainline kernel enables a wider coverage of Linux on ARM processors, ranging from application processors to MMUless embedded processors such as Cortex-R4 and extending to Thumb-2 only processors such as Cortex-M3.

Philippe is Product Manager at ARM Ltd., coordinating Linux activities with the open source community and ARM partners in supporting new versions of the ARM architecture. He has been involved with the development of operating systems for over 15 years, including systems such as SymbianOS, QNX, eCoS, VxWorks and micro-kernels. He also did research in the field of Multimedia and quality of service (QoS) support in distributed systems as part of his PhD thesis.


Presenter: Gene Sally
Company: TimeSys
Title: File System Survey

Discusses the different file systems available to embedded engineers using Linux and the relative merits of each. Introduces the attendee to the virtual file system (VFS) sub-section of Linux to gain a better understanding of how file systems operate. Looks at the feasibility of using a FUSE-based file system on an embedded device.

Gene got involved with embedded Linux when he joined TimeSys in 2000 as an engineer working on developer tools, leading the project that created TimeSys’ first release of TimeStorm based on the Eclipse project. Gene also works with TimeSys’ customers and prospects to understand the benefits of embedded Linux through TimeSys’ popular webinar series and hosts the bi-weekly LinuxLink Radio podcast with Maciej Halasz.


Presenter: Gene Sally
Company: TimeSys
Title: Small Root File Systems

Even with the relentless drop in memory costs, size and power consumption, embedded engineers still must fit their Linux distribution into as small as space as possible. Getting the smallest root file system is usually done by working from the absolute smallest working file system upward. This talk shows the user approaches for creating the smallest functioning RFS, and ways of adding additional functionality with the smallest increase in size.


Presenter: Jan Schmidt
Company: Fluendo
Title: Gstreamer Tutorial

I represent Fluendo S.A., a company doing various kind of product development, consulting and training services around the popular GStreamer multimedia framework In fact, most of the core team of GStreamer has over the last few years been hired by Fluendo.
GStreamer is the multimedia framework of choice for the GNOME desktop environment and looks likely to also be adopted by the KDE desktop environment for KDE4, partly due to work being done by Fluendo and Intel on integrating GStreamer with KDE’s Phonon media component framework.
GStreamer is popular due to its modular and modern design combined with a large active development community. It is also seeing a rapid increase in use on embedded platforms. One of the first big embedded public products shipping with GStreamer was the Nokia 770 tablet, but a lot of smaller and not so well known products such as the German ‘Dream’ DVB box also uses GStreamer. There are embedded projects using GStreamer underway at many big and small companies, many who are Fluendo customers, including companies such as Nokia, Garmin, Texas Instruments and Intel. GStreamer has also been announced as the framework of choice for the new Linux-based Access platform by PalmSource.

Based on this, we felt it would be prudent to offer to do a GStreamer tutorial at the upcoming Embedded Linux Conference.
The tutorial will cover the following:
• An introduction to GStreamer’s general design and development roadmap.
• Construction of simple pipelines using available GStreamer elements, building a video decoding pipeline
• Look at the requirements for various types of processing elements: data sources, sinks, filters, converters.
• Development of a simple custom plug-in for processing raw video frames
• Extending the custom element in various ways, to render video effects, and provide custom communication with the application

Participants should be familiar with GObject/GLib, as GStreamer code relies heavily on both.

Jan Schmidt is a Senior Developer at Fluendo S.A. in Barcelona, Spain. He is a core maintainer and developer of the open source GStreamer multimedia framework. Currently he is primarily involved in developing codec plugins for Linux playback of proprietary video and audio formats such as MPEG video and audio, and Windows Media.


Presenters: Kuniyasu Suzaki, Toshiki Yagi
Company: National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
Title: HTTP-FUSE PS3 Linux which is internet boot framework with kboot

HTTP-FUSE PS3-Linux is an Internet boot framework for PlayStation3 Linux distributions. PS3 uses “kboot” as a bootloader, which is stored at build-in 4MB Flash memory. kboot can download a kernel and a miniroot via HTTP from the Internet. The root file system is obtained by HTTP-FUSE CLOOP which is a stackable virtual block device. “FUSE(Filesystem USErspace)” re-constructs a block device from the block files on HTTP servers. The block files are made from a normal disk image by splitting 256KB block. The file is named by the SHA1 hash of its data. The file name acts as the address of the block.

HTTP-FUSE CLOOP is applied to PS3-Linux distributions (Fedora Core, Debian, etc) which are installed on a build-in HD. We only have to customize the kernel and miniroot for HTTP-FUSE PS3-Linux. It makes easy to download security updates for anonymous users because it is only has to add new block files on the servers. This framework isn’t limited to PS3 and can be applied to any embedded Linux which uses kboot.

Project web site:

Kuniyasu Suzaki is a Researcher at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology in Japan. His main interest is OS boot/migration via Internet, and maintains 1CD Linux KNOPPIX Japanese edition and VMKNOPIX (Xenoppix).


Presenter: Greg Ungerer
Company: SnapGear
Title: uClinux -- State of the Nation

Micro-Controller Linux (uClinux) is an open source project that adds support to Linux that enables it to run on microprocessors without Memory Management Units (MMU). It has been around for quite some time and is used extensively. This talk is a “state of nation” on where uClinux is currently at, and where it is going.

Development is occurring on a number of fronts and spread across several CPU architecture families. There are lots of interresting things going and, and this is a summary of the varied activities.

Coverage will include currently supported architectures and their status, current memory management changes (non-power of 2 allocators), exe formats, toolchains, status if mainline inclusion and more.

Greg specializes in embedded systems development, having spent more than 18 years developing embedded software, and more than 14 years developing with Linux. Greg is currently one of the core maintainers of the uClinux project. He first started hacking on it 9 years ago, and did the port to the Freescale ColdFire CPU family. Over the last couple of years Greg has been pushing the uClinux support into Linus’s mainline 2.6 series Linux kernels. Greg has been involved in the design and release of many commercial products based on uClinux software over the last few years.


Presenter: Giulio Urlini
Company: ST
Title: The OpenMAX Integration Layer Standard

This presentation will first give an outline of the OpenMAX standard and its current status. Then, the Linux implementation will be described and the overall software multimedia architecture integration will be depicted. In particular, the interaction of Gstreamer and OpenMAX IL will be deepened. There is also a possibility to show a simple demo based on OpenMAX/Gstreamer on our Nomadik reference designs.

Giulio started his career with Java developments for fast prototyping on embedded platforms for two years. The next four years were spent on driver development for Symbian and Linux OS on embedded platforms. Currently he is involved in the definition of OpenMAX Integration Layer standard by Khronos and its implementation on embedded systems.


Presenter: Mark R. Walker
Company: Intel
Title: The CEA 2014 Standard. A New XHTML-Based Browser and Setup Framework for Digital Home Devices

A new standard recently ratified by the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) will be presented. CEA 2014 is composed of three distinct parts: a UPnP-based framework for locating and rendering user interface content on the home network, a UPnP-based home user interface server specification, and new browser specification employing an XHTML profile also referred to as ‘CE-HTML’.

CE-HTML is constructed upon existing W3C standards including XHTML 1.0, CSS-TV and ECMA. It however goes beyond the W3C foundation in the detailed specification of browser behavior designed to deliver optimum user experiences on common consumer electronics devices. The 2014 standard and its uses will be delivered in this presentation.

Mark E. Walker works at Intel.


Presenter: Jeff Waugh
Company: GNOME Foundation
Title: An Announcement from the GNOME Foundation

By day, Jeff Waugh is a consultant with Waugh Partners. By night, he rides shotgun on the GNOME release juggernaut and plots the Open Source blogging explosion with Planet. Waugh is an active member of the Free Software community, holding positions such as Chairman of the Annodex Foundation (2006), Director of the GNOME Foundation Board (2003-2004, 2006), GNOME Release Manager (2001-2005), committee member (2000-2001) and president (2002-2003) of the Sydney Linux Users’ Group, and member of the 2001 organizing team. He was one of the founding employees of Canonical, spending two and a half years engaged in Ubuntu business and community development. In 2005, Waugh won the Google/O’Reilly Open Source award for Best Evangelist. Jeff is a card-carrying member of Linux Australia, but does not say “mate”.


Presenters: Tetsuji Yamamoto, Masashige Mizuyama
Companies: Matsushita Electric Industrial, Panasonic Mobile Communications
Title: Deferred Dynamic Loading --- A Memory Reduction Technique

It is a good thing that shared libraries consume memory pages on demand basis. However, a certain amount of pages are still “statically” allocated for dynamic linkage of each library at process start up time. They can be eliminated if dynamic loading is deferred until the process actually invokes the library. Several mega bytes of dirty pages are reduced by doing so in our system.

Tetsuji Yamamoto is senior engineer of Matsushita Electric Industrial Corporation. He works on the Linux platform for mobile phone, to improve performance and to reduce RAM/ROM usage. His current interest is power management for Linux and mobile hardware.


Presenter: Haitao Zhang, Yuji Wei
Company: Netspectrum
Title: Management of Software Suspend Image

There are use cases when a user would like to store the multiple software suspend image in S4 mode onto a USB stick. And later on would like to choose one of the suspended images to boot from them. In this case, Linux kernel needs customization to enable storing the suspened images onto different locations on a USB disk as differnet files. Later on boot loader, in this case, Grub is used to detect the multiple suspended images and present them to users in the boot menu.

Haitao Zhang was an early engineer at MontaVista’s Beijing office. His main interest is embedded Linux development, especially on MIPS based SGI/NEC machines. He previously worked at NetPower Technologies to develop Linux based firewalls on Broadcom swarm boards. He is the co-founder of Netspectrum Inc., which provides Linux consulting services, and is also a developer of Linux on HPC project.